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Civil Rights Top Facts

Activism
Activism consists of intentional efforts to promote, impede or direct social, political, economic, or environmental change. Activism can take a wide range of forms from writing letters to newspapers or politicians, political campaigning, economic activism such as boycotts or preferentially patronizing businesses, rallies, street marches, strikes, sit-ins, and hunger strikes. Activists can function in roles as public officials, as in judicial activism. Arthur Schlesinger Jr.
ActivismCommunity organizingActivismActivists

African-American Civil Rights Movement (1955–1968)

African-American Civil Rights Movement (1955–1968)

LGBT rights by country or territory
Laws affecting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people vary greatly by country or territory—everything from legal recognition of same-sex marriage or other types of partnerships, to the death penalty as punishment for same-sex sexual activity or identity.
LGBT rights by country or territoryHuman rights-related listsSex lawsLaw listsLGBT rights by regionLGBT-related legislation

Civil rights movement
The civil rights movement was a worldwide political movement for equality before the law occurring between approximately 1950 and 1980. In many situations it took the form of campaigns of civil resistance aimed at achieving change by nonviolent forms of resistance. In some situations it was accompanied, or followed, by civil unrest and armed rebellion.
Civil rights movementCivil rights movement

Civil Rights Act of 1964
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was a landmark piece of legislation in the United States that outlawed major forms of discrimination against African Americans and women, including racial segregation. It ended unequal application of voter registration requirements and racial segregation in schools, at the workplace and by facilities that served the general public ("public accommodations"). Powers given to enforce the act were initially weak, but were supplemented during later years.
Civil Rights Act of 1964African-American historyDiscrimination law in the United StatesUnited States federal criminal legislationAnti-racism1964 in lawLabour lawCivil rights movement during the Lyndon B. Johnson AdministrationHistory of the United States (1945–1964)United States federal civil rights legislation88th United States CongressGreat Society programs

Ombudsman
An ombudsman is a person who acts as a trusted intermediary between either the state (or elements of it) or an organization, and some internal or external constituency, while representing not only but mostly the broad scope of constituent interests. An indigenous Danish, Norwegian and Swedish term, Ombudsman is etymologically rooted in the Old Norse word umboðsmaðr, essentially meaning "representative".
OmbudsmanGovernment occupationsEthics organizationsScandinavian titlesLegal professionsSwedish loanwordsOmbudsmen

Voting Rights Act
The Voting Rights Act of 1965 is a landmark piece of national legislation in the United States that outlawed discriminatory voting practices that had been responsible for the widespread disenfranchisement of African Americans in the U.S. Echoing the language of the 15th Amendment, the Act prohibits states from imposing any "voting qualification or prerequisite to voting, or standard, practice, or procedure ...
Voting Rights ActAfrican-American historyDiscrimination law in the United StatesHistory of voting rights in the United StatesUnited States congressional districtsCivil rights movement during the Lyndon B. Johnson AdministrationUnited States federal election legislationUnited States federal civil rights legislation1965 in lawGreat Society programs

Revolutions of 1848 in the German states
The Revolutions of 1848 in the German states, also called the March Revolution – part of the Revolutions of 1848 that broke out in many countries of Europe – were a series of loosely coordinated protests and rebellions in the states of the German Confederation, including the Austrian Empire.
Revolutions of 1848 in the German states19th century in GermanyRevolutions of 1848

Natural and legal rights
Natural and legal rights are two types of rights theoretically distinct according to philosophers and political scientists. Natural rights are rights not contingent upon the laws, customs, or beliefs of any particular culture or government, and therefore universal and inalienable. In contrast, legal rights are those bestowed onto a person by the law of a particular political and legal system, and therefore relative to specific cultures and governments.
Natural and legal rightsCore issues in ethicsHuman rights conceptsRightsConcepts in ethicsPolitical termsSovereigntyLegal doctrines and principlesAnimal rights

LGBT social movements
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender social movements share inter-related goals of social acceptance of sexual and gender minorities. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people and their allies have a long history of campaigning for what is generally called LGBT rights, also called gay rights and gay and lesbian rights.
LGBT social movementsLGBT historyLGBT rightsCivil rights and libertiesEgalitarianismLGBT rights movement

March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom
The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom (or "The Great March on Washington," as styled in a sound recording released after the event) was one of the largest political rallies for human rights in United States history and called for civil and economic rights for African Americans. It took place in Washington, D.C. on Wednesday, August 28, 1963. Martin Luther King, Jr.
March on Washington for Jobs and FreedomCivil rights protests1963 in Washington, D.C.Martin Luther King, Jr.Protest marches in Washington, D.C.History of African-American civil rightsNonviolence

Harvard Law Review
The Harvard Law Review is a journal of legal scholarship published by an independent student group at Harvard Law School.
Harvard Law ReviewEnglish-language journalsAmerican law journalsPublications established in 1887Academic journals edited by studentsHarvard Law SchoolGeneral law reviewsHarvard University academic journals

Selma to Montgomery marches
The Selma to Montgomery marches were three marches in 1965 that marked the political and emotional peak of the American civil rights movement. They grew out of the voting rights movement in Selma, Alabama, launched by local African-Americans who formed the Dallas County Voters League (DCVL). In 1963, the DCVL and organizers from the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) began voter-registration work.
Selma to Montgomery marches1965 in AlabamaCivil rights protestsHistory of Montgomery, AlabamaHistory of AlabamaProtest marchesProtests in the United StatesMartin Luther King, Jr.History of African-American civil rightsAll-American RoadsAfrican-American history of Alabama1965 in the United StatesCivil rights movement during the Lyndon B. Johnson AdministrationNational Historic Trails of the United StatesSelma, AlabamaConflicts in 1965

United States Commission on Civil Rights
The U.S. Commission on Civil Rights is historically a bipartisan, independent commission of the U.S. federal government, created in 1957, that is charged with the responsibility for investigating, reporting on, and making recommendations concerning civil rights issues that face the nation.
United States Commission on Civil RightsCivil rights organizations in the United StatesIndependent agencies of the United States government

Civil Rights Act of 1968
The Civil Rights Act of 1968, also known as the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968, was a landmark piece of legislation in the United States that provided for equal housing opportunities regardless of race, creed, or national origin. The Act was signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson, who had previously signed the landmark Civil Rights Act and Voting Rights Act into law.
Civil Rights Act of 1968Discrimination law in the United StatesUnited States federal criminal legislation1968 in lawUnited States federal civil rights legislationGreat Society programs

Civil Rights Act of 1871
The Civil Rights Act of 1871, 17 Stat.  13, enacted April 20, 1871, is a federal law in force in the United States. The Act was originally enacted a few years after the American Civil War, along with the 1870 Force Act. One of the chief reasons for its passage was to protect southern blacks from the Ku Klux Klan by providing a civil remedy for abuses then being committed in the South.
Civil Rights Act of 1871Section 1983 case lawDiscrimination law in the United StatesUnited States federal criminal legislationSovereign immunity in the United StatesHistory of African-American civil rights42nd United States CongressReconstructionUnited States federal civil rights legislation

Catholic League (U.S.)
The Catholic League for Religious and Civil Rights, often shortened to the Catholic League, is an American Catholic anti-defamation and civil rights organization. The Catholic League states that it "defends the right of Catholics – lay and clergy alike – to participate in American public life without defamation or discrimination. " The Catholic League states that it is "motivated by the letter and the spirit of the First Amendment ...
Catholic League (U.S.)Civil liberties advocacy groups in the United StatesChristianity-related controversiesOrganizations established in 1973Anti-CatholicismRoman Catholic Church in the United States

Disfranchisement after Reconstruction era
The Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution was ratified in 1870 to protect the suffrage of freedmen after the American Civil War. It prevented any state from denying the right to vote to any male citizen on account of his race. African Americans were an absolute majority of the population in Mississippi, Louisiana and South Carolina, and represented over 40% of the population in four other former Confederate states.
Disfranchisement after Reconstruction eraAfrican-American historyHistory of racial segregation in the United StatesHistory of voting rights in the United StatesElections in the United StatesHistory of African-American civil rightsElectoral restrictionsTaxation in the United StatesHistory of the Southern United States

Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association
The Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association (Irish: Cumann Chearta Sibhialta Thuaisceart Éireann) was an organisation which campaigned for civil rights for the Roman Catholic minority in Northern Ireland during the late 1960s and early 1970s.
Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association1967 establishments in Northern IrelandThe Troubles (Northern Ireland)Civil rights organizationsPolitical pressure groups of Northern Ireland

LGBT rights in the United States
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender rights in the United States have evolved over time and vary on a basis. Sexual acts between consenting adults (depending on the age of consent in each state; varying from age 16 to 21), and adolescents of a close age, of the same sex have been legal nationwide in the U.S. since 2003, pursuant to the U.S. Supreme Court ruling in Lawrence v. Texas. Family, marriage, and anti-discrimination laws vary by state. Six states plus Washington, D.C.
LGBT rights in the United StatesLGBT law in the United StatesLGBT rights in the United StatesHistory of LGBT civil rights in the United States

History of the Jews in the Soviet Union
The history of the Jews in the Soviet Union is discussed in the following articles relating to specific regions of the former Soviet Union: History of the Jews in Armenia History of the Jews in Azerbaijan History of the Jews in Belarus History of the Jews in Estonia History of the Jews in Georgia History of the Jews in Abkhazia History of the Jews in South Ossetia History of the Jews in Kazakhstan History of the Jews in Kyrgyzstan History of the Jews in Latvia History of the Jews in Lithuania History of the Jews in Moldova History of the Jews in Russia History of the Jews in Tajikistan History of the Jews in Turkmenistan History of the Jews in Ukraine
History of the Jews in the Soviet UnionJewish Russian and Soviet history

Freedom Summer
Freedom Summer (also known as the Mississippi Summer Project) was a campaign in the United States launched in June 1964 to attempt to register as many, African American voters as possible in Mississippi which had historically excluded most blacks from voting. The project also set up dozens of Freedom Schools, Freedom Houses, and community centers in small towns throughout Mississippi to aid the local black population.
Freedom SummerHistory of voting rights in the United StatesAfrican-American history of Mississippi1964 in the United StatesHistory of African-American civil rightsCivil rights movement during the Lyndon B. Johnson Administration

Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.
Martin Luther King, Jr. , a prominent American leader of the African-American civil rights movement and Nobel Peace Prize laureate, was assassinated at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee, on April 4, 1968, at the age of 39. On June 10, 1968, James Earl Ray, a fugitive from the Missouri State Penitentiary, was arrested in London at Heathrow Airport, extradited to the United States, and charged with the crime.
Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.AssassinationsHistory of Memphis, Tennessee1968 in the United States1968 murders in the United StatesMartin Luther King, Jr.History of African-American civil rights1968 in TennesseeCivil rights movement during the Lyndon B. Johnson AdministrationRacially motivated violence against African Americans

Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.
Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. , (November 29, 1908 – April 4, 1972) was an American politician and pastor who represented Harlem, New York City, in the United States House of Representatives (1945–71). He was the first person in New York of African-American descent elected to Congress, and became a powerful national politician. In 1961, after sixteen years in the House, Powell became chairman of the Education and Labor Committee, the most powerful position held by an African American in Congress.
Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.Bandung Conference attendeesPeople from New Haven, ConnecticutMembers of the United States House of Representatives from New YorkColgate University alumniAfrican American politiciansPeople from HarlemAfrican American members of the United States House of RepresentativesColumbia University alumniNew York City Council members1972 deaths1908 birthsPowell family of New YorkBaptists from the United States20th-century African-American activists

Chicano Movement
The Chicano Movement of the 1960s, also called the Chicano Civil Rights Movement, also known as El Movimiento, is an extension of the Mexican American Civil Rights Movement which began in the 1940s with the stated goal of achieving Mexican American empowerment.
Chicano MovementMexican-American historyDefunct American political movementsNonviolent resistance movementsHistory of civil rights in the United StatesMexican-American culture

Buddhist crisis, 1963
The Buddhist crisis was a period of political and religious tension in South Vietnam from May 1963 to November 1963 characterized by a series of repressive acts by the South Vietnamese government and a campaign of civil resistance, led mainly by Buddhist monks. The crisis was precipitated by the shootings of nine unarmed civilians on May 8 in the central city of Huế who were protesting a ban of the Buddhist flag.
Buddhist crisis, 1963Buddhist crisisNgo Dinh Diem

Police misconduct
Police misconduct refers to inappropriate actions taken by police officers in connection with their official duties. Police misconduct can lead to a miscarriage of justice and sometimes involves discrimination. In an effort to control police misconduct, there is an accelerating trend for civilian agencies to go beyond review to engage directly in investigations and to have much greater input into disciplinary decisions.
Police misconductPolice misconduct

Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs
The Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs (LIBE) is a standing committee of the European Parliament.
Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home AffairsCommittees of the European Parliament

Disability rights

Disability rights

Mississippi civil rights workers murders
The Mississippi civil rights workers murders involved the lynching of three anti-racism and social justice activists near Philadelphia in Neshoba County, Mississippi on June 21, 1964, during the American Civil Rights Movement.
Mississippi civil rights workers murdersRacially motivated violence in the United States1964 murders in the United StatesAfrican-American history of MississippiPolitical violence in the United StatesHistory of African-American civil rightsJews and Judaism in Mississippi1964 in MississippiKu Klux Klan crimes

16th Street Baptist Church bombing
The 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama was bombed on Sunday, September 15, 1963 as an act of racially motivated terrorism. The explosion at the African-American church, which killed four girls, marked a turning point in the U.S. 1960s Civil Rights Movement and contributed to support for passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
16th Street Baptist Church bombingExplosions in the United States1963 in AlabamaHistory of Birmingham, AlabamaTerrorist incidents in the 1960s1963 crimes1963 murders in the United StatesTerrorist attacks on places of worshipHistory of AlabamaConflicts in 1963Mass murder in 1963Local civil rights history in the United StatesHistory of African-American civil rightsAfrican-American history of AlabamaMurder in AlabamaImprovised explosive device bombings in the United StatesKu Klux Klan crimesTerrorist incidents in 1963Terrorist incidents in the United StatesRacially motivated violence against African Americans

List of amendments to the United States Constitution
This is the complete list of the ratified and unratified amendments to the United States Constitution which received the approval of the United States Congress. Twenty-seven amendments have been ratified since the original signing of the Constitution, the first ten of which are known collectively as the Bill of Rights. The procedure for amending the United States Constitution is governed by Article V of the original text.
List of amendments to the United States ConstitutionAmendments to the United States Constitution

United States Department of Justice Civil Rights Division
The U.S. Department of Justice Civil Rights Division is the institution within the federal government responsible for enforcing federal statutes prohibiting discrimination on the basis of race, sex, disability, religion, and national origin. The Division was established on December 9, 1957, by order of Attorney General William P. Rogers, after the Civil Rights Act of 1957 created the office of Assistant Attorney General for Civil Rights, who has since then headed the division.
United States Department of Justice Civil Rights DivisionGovernment agencies established in 1957Civil rights organizationsUnited States Department of Justice agenciesHuman rights organizations based in the United States

Association for Civil Rights in Israel
The Association for Civil Rights in Israel was created as an independent non-partisan organization, to protect human rights and civil rights in Israel and the territories under its control. The association was created in 1972, and its founders were a group of people -mainly academics from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem- that felt the need for an independent extra-parliamentary organization to protect civil rights.
Association for Civil Rights in IsraelHuman rights organizations based in IsraelCivil rights organizations

California Proposition 209 (1996)
Proposition 209 (also known as the California Civil Rights Initiative) is a California ballot proposition which, upon approval in November 1996, amended the state constitution to prohibit state government institutions from considering race, sex, or ethnicity, specifically in the areas of public employment, public contracting or public education.
California Proposition 209 (1996)History of affirmative action in the United StatesAmendments to the California constitutionCalifornia ballot propositions, 1996

Civil Rights Act of 1866
The Civil Rights Act of 1866, 14 Stat.  27, enacted April 9, 1866, is a federal law in the United States that was mainly intended to protect the civil rights of African-Americans, in the wake of the American Civil War. The Act was enacted by Congress in 1865 but it was vetoed by President Andrew Johnson. In April 1866 Congress again passed the bill, Johnson again vetoed it, but this time a two-thirds majority in each house overcame the veto and the bill became law.
Civil Rights Act of 1866Discrimination law in the United StatesUnited States federal criminal legislation39th United States CongressHistory of African-American civil rightsReconstructionUnited States federal civil rights legislation

African-American Civil Rights Movement (1896–1954)

African-American Civil Rights Movement (1896–1954)

Civil Rights Act of 1957
The Civil Rights Act of 1957, Pub.L. 85-315, 71 Stat.  634, enacted September 9, 1957, primarily a voting rights bill, was the first civil rights legislation enacted by Congress in the United States since Reconstruction following the American Civil War. Following the historic US Supreme Court ruling in Brown v. Board of Education (1955), which eventually led to the integration of public schools, Southern whites in Virginia began a "Massive Resistance".
Civil Rights Act of 195785th United States CongressUnited States federal civil rights legislation1957 in law

National Civil Rights Museum
The National Civil Rights Museum located in Memphis, Tennessee, is a privately owned complex of museums and historic buildings built around the former Lorraine Motel at 450 Mulberry Street where Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated on April 4, 1968. Major components of the complex on 4.14 acres include a museum and the Lorraine Motel and hotel buildings.
National Civil Rights MuseumMemorials to Martin Luther King, Jr.Motels in the United StatesHistory museums in TennesseeAmerican national museums in TennesseeMuseums in Memphis, TennesseeHotels established in 1920African American museums in Tennessee

Civil right

Civil right

Bull Connor
Theophilus Eugene "Bull" Connor (July 11, 1897 – March 10, 1973) was the Commissioner of Public Safety for the city of Birmingham, Alabama, during the American Civil Rights Movement. His office gave him responsibility for administrative oversight of the Birmingham Fire Department and the Birmingham Police Department, which had their own chiefs.
Bull ConnorDeaths from stroke1897 birthsPeople from Selma, AlabamaHistory of African-American civil rightsAlabama Dixiecrats1973 deathsPeople from Birmingham, AlabamaAlabama Democrats

Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights
The Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights (The Leadership Conference), formerly called The Leadership Conference on Civil Rights, is an umbrella group of American civil rights interest groups.
Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights501(c)(4) nonprofit organizationsPolitical advocacy groups in the United States

Civil Rights Act of 1875
The Civil Rights Act of 1875 was a United States federal law proposed by Senator Charles Sumner and Representative Benjamin F. Butler in 1870. The act was passed by Congress in February, 1875 and signed by President Grant on March 1, 1875. The Act guaranteed that everyone, regardless of race, color, or previous condition of servitude, was entitled to the same treatment in "public accommodations" (i.e. inns, public conveyances on land or water, theaters, and other places of public amusement).
Civil Rights Act of 1875African-American historyDiscrimination law in the United States1875 in law1875 in the United StatesReconstructionUnited States federal civil rights legislation

Civil Rights Act of 1991
The Civil Rights Act of 1991 is a United States statute that was passed in response to a series of United States Supreme Court decisions which limited the rights of employees who had sued their employers for discrimination. The Act represented the first effort since the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to modify some of the basic procedural and substantive rights provided by federal law in employment discrimination cases.
Civil Rights Act of 19911991 in lawDiscrimination law in the United StatesUnited States statutes that abrogate Supreme Court decisions102nd United States CongressUnited States federal civil rights legislation

Michigan Civil Rights Initiative
The Michigan Civil Rights Initiative (MCRI), or Proposal 2 (Michigan 06-2), was a ballot initiative in the U.S. state of Michigan that passed into Michigan Constitutional law by a 58% to 42% margin on November 7, 2006, according to results officially certified by the Michigan Secretary of State. By Michigan law, the Proposal became law on December 22, 2006.
Michigan Civil Rights InitiativeHistory of affirmative action in the United StatesGovernment of Michigan

Civil Rights Cases
The Civil Rights Cases, 109 U.S. 3 (1883), were a group of five similar cases consolidated into one issue for the United States Supreme Court to review. The Court held that Congress lacked the constitutional authority under the enforcement provisions of the Fourteenth Amendment to outlaw racial discrimination by private individuals and organizations, rather than state and local governments.
Civil Rights Cases1883 in United States case lawUnited States civil rights case lawUnited States Fourteenth Amendment, section five case lawHistory of the United States (1865–1918)United States equal protection case lawUnited States Supreme Court cases

Section 92(13) of the Constitution Act, 1867
Section 92(13) of the Constitution Act, 1867, also known as the property and civil rights power, grants the provincial legislatures of Canada the authority to legislate on: “ 13. Property and Civil Rights in the Province. ” In this context, "civil rights" are different from what are generally known as civil liberties. Instead, it refers to tortious and contractual rights.
Section 92(13) of the Constitution Act, 1867Federalism in CanadaConstitution of Canada

Inclusion (disability rights)
For the academic study of disability, see disability studies. For the more general subject of disability rights, see disability rights. For disability advocacy in educational systems, see educational inclusion and mainstreaming. For other articles on inclusion see its disambiguation page.
Inclusion (disability rights)AccessibilityDisability rightsMedical sociologyMajority–minority relationsSociological terms

Peaceful Revolution
The Peaceful Revolution was a series of peaceful political protests against the authoritarian regime of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) of East Germany. The protests, which included an emigration movement as well as street demonstrations, were a case of nonviolent resistance, also often called civil resistance. The events were part of the Revolutions of 1989.
Peaceful RevolutionHistory of East Germany1989 in East GermanyDie WendeGerman reunificationNonviolent revolutionsRevolutions of 1989

Office for Civil Rights
The Office for Civil Rights (OCR) is a sub-agency of the U.S. Department of Education that is primarily focused on protecting civil rights in Federally assisted education programs and prohibiting discrimination on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, handicap, age, or membership in patriotic youth organizations.
Office for Civil RightsEducation in the United StatesUnited States Department of Education agenciesCivil rights organizations